By Byron K. Marshall
Byron okay. Marshall bargains the following a dramatic learn of the altering nature and boundaries of educational freedom in prewar Japan, from the Meiji recovery to the eve of worldwide conflict II.Meiji leaders based Tokyo Imperial college within the past due 19th century to supply their new govt with priceless technical and theoretical wisdom. a tutorial elite, armed with Western studying, progressively emerged and wielded major impact during the kingdom. whilst a few school contributors criticized the behavior of the Russo-Japanese conflict the govt. threatened dismissals. the school and management banded jointly, forcing the govt. to backpedal. by means of 1939, even if, this cohesion had eroded. the traditional reason behind this erosion has been the inability of a convention of autonomy between prewar jap universities. Marshall argues as an alternative that those later purges resulted from the university's 40-year fixation on institutional autonomy on the fee of educational freedom.Marshall's finely nuanced research is complemented through large use of quantitative, biographical, and archival assets.
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Additional info for Academic Freedom and the Japanese Imperial University, 1868-1939
For advanced study the student would have to be sent abroad. The opportunity to study abroad with official support remained closely controlled by government regulations in the early 1870s. After 19. Griffis, The Mikado's Empire, p. 371. 20. Quoted in Beauchamp, An American Teacher in Early Meiji Japan, p. 77. < previous page page_34 next page > < previous page page_35 next page > Page 35 high costs and the need to systematize the government-sponsored program of overseas study had led to the recall of all students in 1873, no students were sent until the fall of 1875.
When teaching, with pipe in mouth, and punctuating their instructions with oaths, or appearing in the classroom top-heavy, the Japanese concluded that such eccentricities were merely national peculiarities. 19 Griffis nonetheless did give some evidence that the school was attracting good students from the provinces. "20 The government was also attempting to attract better foreign teachers to the school. By February 1872, when Griffis arrived to take a post there, the situation had apparently changed considerably for the better.
Between 1888 and 1917after which the system was modifiedthere were a total of only 275 hakusbi in the two categories of law and letters combined. Of these, a third were on the Todai faculty. After 1897 academics at the new Kyoto Imperial University were also among the lists, if less frequently, accounting for some 16 percent of the 275. 29 28. , the 1903 edition of Jinji koshin roku). 29. The great majority of those awarded the doctorate in legal studies from 1888 to 1905, fifty-four of sixty-nine, were neither from the four southwestern domains nor from the Tokugawa domain: Place of Employment Todai (N = 26) Kyodai (N = 13) Other public schools (N = 2) Bureaucratic posts (N = 14) Private schools (N = 8) Other (N = 3) Unclear (N = 3) Totals N = 69) From Southwest Domain From Shogunal Domain Educated at Todai Studied Abroad 2 2 23 25 2 0 12 13 0 0 1 1 3 2 8 7 1 0 7 6 0 1 1 2 0 2 2 1 8 (12%) 7 (10% ) 54 (78%) 55 (80%) "Todai" includes the predecessor institutions: Kaisei Gakusho, Daigaku Nanko, and Kaisei Gakko.
Academic Freedom and the Japanese Imperial University, 1868-1939 by Byron K. Marshall