By Alekseï Nikolaevitch Tolstoï
Peu après l. a. Première Guerre mondiale, l'ingénieur Loss se lance dans l. a. development d'une fusée pour rejoindre los angeles planète Mars. Mais personne ne veut l'accompagner dans ce voyage périlleux, à l'exception d'un aventurier, un ancien soldat de l'Armée rouge, Goussev. Arrivés sur Mars, ils y découvrent une civilisation millénaire, fondée par les rescapés de l'Atlantide où le luxe féodal de l. a. caste des gouvernants est le fruit du travail de mornes foules d'ouvriers...
Réflexion sur los angeles révolution, le progrès, les risks de los angeles décadence de los angeles civilisation, Aélita (1923) est considéré comme le foremost chef-d'oeuvre de l. a. science-fiction soviétique. Mais le roman de Tolstoï est avant tout un grand livre d'aventures, dans l'esprit des oeuvres de H.G. Wells, Jack London, Burroughs ou Brioussov. Les légendes de l'Atlantide, les épopées des Hommes du Ciel, les scènes d'amour et de strive against, les envolées mystiques de Loss, l'intelligence prosaïque et les réparties comiques de Goussev - un personnage classique du skaz du XIXe siècle -, les descriptions d'un monde inconnu et mystérieux, tout cela fait d'Aélita un roman exaltant.
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Mining and metal-working enterprises, which were crucial to the army's fighting capacity, also secured favourable 24 treatment. The rail network, barely able to cope with all its freight traffic in peacetime, in the war's first full year had trouble in getting sufficient grain from the south to the grain-deficient provinces of central and northern Russia (116: 7-8). Urban rationing was already seriously contemplated. Good harvests in 1914 and 1915 were followed by a drop in cereal production in 1916 by 10 per cent below the annual average for the half-decade before the First World War (135:3-5).
The soldiers' and sailors' attitude was in itself disturbing. Yet it provoked other worries in the cabinet too; the lack of a dependable military force meant that nothing could restrain the peasants from doing as they liked. In fact the official procurement agencies in the eight months of the Provisional Government's existence failed by less than 11/2 per cent to equal the amount of grain bought by Nikolai II's bureaucrats in the last eight months of the old regime. The drawback was that this was only 48 per cent of recognised national requirements (129: 442-3).
Outlying cities, like Baku on the Caspian, evolved similarly (122: 119, 131). Menshevik and Socialist-Revolutionary leaderships in the town soviets away from the capital had willy-nilly been drawn into encroaching upon the prerogatives of the local agencies of the Provisional Government. Where they held back, the suburb soviets often pushed in and did the job instead. The overall trend was for lower soviet bodies to ignore their hierarchical superiors whenever conflicts over substantive politics arose (131:235).
Aelita by Alekseï Nikolaevitch Tolstoï