By Kevin C. Dunn, Timothy M. Shaw (eds.)
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The Great Powers also insured Belgian independence by prohibiting outside political interference in the internal affairs of the new state. Switzerland's existence also broke with the Westphalian model and trajectory (Hobsbawm 1990: 80±100). When the Helvetic Republic emerged from French occupation, it too resembled today's post-colonies in many regards. From 1802, when it ceased to be a French puppet state, to 1848 the Swiss Confederacy was very loose internally and, as now, never ethnically unified.
Belgium and Switzerland display the same `artificial' features as their contemporary African counterpart, the Congo. Yet, Western powers designed the international regimes of sovereignty and their structures of allocation of strategically significant resources such that the two European states played a significant role in international affairs incommensurable with their capability ± measured by size, power, and domestic resources. Moreover, both European states exercised their global role to the detriment of the Congo.
Theorists such as Emerich de Vattel held that native or indigenous populations possessed inferior religion, social habits, moral sentiments, and political structures. The latter were also deemed to lack civil institutions and notions of rights. The related sentiment that prevailed until the beginning of the twentieth century was that the natives had no physical, legal, or emotional attachment to land or territory worthy of European respect (Reynolds 1992: 9±22). Versions of Emerich de Vattel's formula formed the basis of the allocation of values within the international 36 Sovereignty in Africa order, including sovereignty, and that of the various determinate modes of inter-communal interactions.
Africa’s Challenge to International Relations Theory by Kevin C. Dunn, Timothy M. Shaw (eds.)