By Robert I. Frost
The Swedish invasion of 1655, identified to Poles ever seeing that because the 'Swedish deluge', provoked the political and army cave in of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the second-largest kingdom in Europe. Robert Frost examines the explanations for Poland's fall and the behavior of the warfare by way of the Polish executive, and addresses the the most important query of why, regardless of common popularity of the shortcomings of the political approach, next makes an attempt at reform failed. battle has lengthy been visible as the most important to the improvement of more beneficial platforms of presidency in Europe through the 17th century, yet experiences often be aware of states which answered effectively to the demanding situations. a lot may be discovered from those who failed, and the paucity of English-language fabric in this very important clash implies that After the Deluge will attract a large viewers between historians of Poland, Germany, Scandinavia, Russia, and early smooth Europe more often than not.
Read Online or Download After the Deluge: Poland-Lithuania and the Second Northern War, 1655-1660 PDF
Similar russia books
Strikingly written and in keeping with Litvinenko’s twenty years of insider’s wisdom of Russian secret agent campaigns, Blowing up Russia describes how the successor of the KGB fabricated terrorist assaults and introduced warfare to have the unknown Putin - Litvinenko’s former more suitable on the Russian mystery carrier - elected with a landslide victory.
I'm staying in russia. i'm scholar the following. i would like to understand extra approximately russian economic system ,because iam studing economic system.
This publication appears to be like on the one of many key advertisement hyperlinks among the Baltic and Atlantic worlds within the eighteenth century - the export of Swedish and Russian iron to Britain - and its position within the making of the trendy international.
Drawing on infrequent and formerly unpublished photos observed via in-depth captions, the publication offers an soaking up research of this annoying interval of the second one international warfare. It unearths intimately how the conflict of Kursk used to be the start of the tip and the way this huge operation ended in the pink military recapturing large parts of the Soviet Union and bleeding white the German armies it struck.
Extra info for After the Deluge: Poland-Lithuania and the Second Northern War, 1655-1660
Accesserunt Peristromata Regum Symbolis Expressa (Danzig, 1660). 14 Introduction Thereafter it became a regular feature of political life. The nadir was reached in the reign of Augustus III (1733-63), when only the 1736 diet passed any laws at all. The central political issue of John Casimir's reign was the extent and nature of royal authority, a conflict which had been intensifying since 1574. If the Henrician Articles established the theoretical limits of royal power and prescribed the parameters within which the monarch was to operate, they gave no guidance on how the system might work in practice.
The Ian was a measure of land: for details see glossary. 13 The diet's position was strengthened by the political changes following the death of Sigismund Augustus in 1572, marking the triumph of the lower and middle nobility, which had seized the political initiative in the previous decade. Henceforward, not just the diet but the whole nobility had the right to participate in royal elections, a right nobles were only too eager to exercise, turning up in their thousands. It was, however, the conditions to which the newly chosen monarch had to assent which shifted the balance of power in favour of the nobility and the diet.
Yet the problems faced by Sigismund in the 1620s were to return with a vengeance after 1648 when the Cossack revolt and invasion by Sweden and Muscovy destroyed the Commonwealth's ability to defend itself: the devastation caused by the invaders meant that its capacity to raise taxes was severely impaired. John Casimir has frequently been blamed for squandering a marvellous opportunity to reform the political system. Instead of concentrating on restoring health to the diet by abolishing the liberum veto, for which there was substantial support after 1655, the Court concentrated on a campaign for the election of a successor to John Casimir vivente rege in the person of a French candidate, the due d'Enghien.
After the Deluge: Poland-Lithuania and the Second Northern War, 1655-1660 by Robert I. Frost