By Pietro Luigi Iaia
This publication examines the English lingua-franca (ELF) makes use of in a corpus of on-line and scripted video-game interactions. whereas learn normally explores the playful and technological points of computer-mediated communique, this examine makes a speciality of the innovations of cooperation, language simplification and authentication, lexical creativity and which means negotiation which are mostly activated in the «community of perform of players» to facilitate cross-cultural conversations. The scripted exchanges, in its place, are tested by way of the ALFA version (Analysis of Lingua Franca in Audiovisual texts), that is devised to investigate into the level to which the non-native members’ language diversifications are a part of the multimodal actualisation of the cognitive build of «non-native speakers», to which authors lodge in an effort to urged particular reactions at the a part of the receivers. ultimately, because the individuals’ turns in either on-line and scripted interactions are visually represented as written messages on reveal, this examine additionally contributes to the advance of the outline of written ELF diversifications, up to now no longer completely explored within the literature.
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Yet, the exploration of these areas of interest does not always benefit from a multidisciplinary approach, thus leaving a fragmented framework. Accordingly, the analyses do not pursue a combination between the linguistic, cognitive, socio-cultural and translation issues: for example, as for the main topic of this book – the in-game, online interactions – the main perspective is not cross-cultural, but mainly tailored to the description of the functions of the language used from the general, entertainment and “ludic” perspectives (Burn / Carr 2006; Drachen / Smith 2008; Drachen 2011), merely claiming that people cooperate by means of language in order to defeat a common enemy, or to develop strategies that will help to complete a level.
Yet, as this Chapter details, it is not possible to determine whether this feature is due to the players’ native background, or to the fact that they need more time to revise their messages, or to their status within the guild, in the sense that someone may resort to a correct spelling to actualise, by means of the typographic feature of their messages, their leading status. What can be inferred, instead, is that this deviation does not prevent participants from interacting. Additionally, the analysis of (1) also confirms the hybrid nature of these dialogues, between spoken and written styles, as exemplified by the repetition of “and” in S2’s lines, which reproduces the typical hesitation of oral interactions.
The consideration of the general features of language in gaming (Wright et al. 2002; Manninen 2004) is therefore not enough, but the selection of an innovative perspective that draws upon psychological, sociological, technological, linguistic and cross-cultural theoretical notions is essential to provide evidence that such interactions – by preserving physical, “human” grounds – may be investigated in terms of identity construction and negotiation, the aim at socialising, the creation of communities, the role of appropriate verbal and behavioural rules that contribute to the development and success of online communication, the exploitation of lingua-franca variations.
Analysing English as a Lingua Franca in Video Games by Pietro Luigi Iaia