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By Daniel I.A. Cohen

ISBN-10: 0471035351

ISBN-13: 9780471035350

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Example text

As an illustration, the concentrations of the individual copper(II) ammine complexes are shown in figure 4. Effect of

Kh (76) The hydrogen ion concentration of an anion base, such as sodium acetate, can also be calculated from equation (51). In this case it should be taken into account t h a t (i) The acidic character of the sodium ion is approximately zero, that is Ca ^ 0, and thus: -[H+1-HOH-] Cb + [H+] - [ O H - ] (ii) Anion bases are being investigated, and the medium is alkaline, therefore [ H + ] ^ 0; (iii) Anions are produced by the dissociated salt, thus [A~] = Cb. Therefore g«[OH-] [ H + ] ^ [OR-] Cb (iv) If the hydroxide ion concentration can be neglected in comparison with the concentration of the anion base, t h a t is, if Cb ^> [OH-], C6-[OH-]^C6 and IK K W2 [ H + ] = | ^ * .

Values are listed in table 10. Buffer solutions are widely used in laboratory practice to keep the ρΉ. of various solutions at a constant value. They also play an important role, for instance, in physiology, because living organisms can function properly only within certain narrow pK ranges. The constant pH of blood, for example, is maintained by a carbonate-hydrogen carbonate buffer system. The pH of polybasic acids and multiacidic bases Weak polybasic acids are dissociated in simple, consecutive steps.

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Basic techniques of combinatorial theory by Daniel I.A. Cohen


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