By Worldwatch Institute
The area is at the verge of an unparalleled raise within the creation and use of biofuels for shipping. the combo of emerging oil costs, problems with protection, weather instability and toxins, deepening poverty in rural and agricultural components, and a bunch of more suitable applied sciences, is propelling governments to enact robust incentives for using those fuels, that's in flip sparking funding. Biofuels for delivery is a different and finished evaluate of the possibilities and hazards of the large-scale construction of biofuels. The booklet demystifies advanced questions and issues, comparable to the ?food v. gas? debate. worldwide in scope, it's extra knowledgeable via 5 nation experiences from Brazil, China, Germany, India and Tanzania. The authors finish that biofuels will play an important position in our strength destiny, yet warn that the large-scale use of biofuels consists of hazards that require concentrated and fast coverage tasks. released in organization with BMELV, FNR and GTZ.
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Extra info for Biofuels for Transport: Global Potential and Implications for Sustainable Energy and Agriculture
Oilseed crops grown in tropical areas can be especially productive. Oilseed species vary considerably in their oil saturation and fatty acid content, characteristics that signiﬁcantly affect the properties of the biodiesel produced. Highly saturated oils produce a fuel with superior oxidative stability and a higher cetane number (a measure of a diesel fuel’s quickness to ignite), but which performs poorly in low temperatures (see Chapters 2 and 15). For this reason, vegetable oil with a high degree of saturation is more suited for use in warmer climates.
Adding ethanol to gasoline increases its octane level. Since ethanol molecules contain oxygen (unlike gasoline molecules), ethanol fuel is referred to as an ‘oxygenate’. The oxygen in ethanol can improve the fuel combustion process, helping to reduce the emission of pollutants such as carbon monoxide, ozone-forming unburned hydrocarbons and carcinogenic particulates. However, for related reasons, ethanol combustion also reacts with more atmospheric nitrogen, which can marginally increase emissions of ozone-forming nitrogen oxide (NOx) gases.
Wet milling facilities have the ability to switch between the production of ethanol and the production of corn syrup and/or fructose, similar in a general way to sugar cane factories, which can switch between the production of ethanol and reﬁned sugar, depending upon the markets for ethanol versus sweeteners. 8 Distilling fuel ethanol Unlike ethanol produced for beverages, fuel ethanol must be distilled to have only a very small amount of water content. 8 per cent ethanol. The allowable water remaining in ethanol fuel depends upon the speciﬁcations for particular end uses.
Biofuels for Transport: Global Potential and Implications for Sustainable Energy and Agriculture by Worldwatch Institute