By John N. Kraeuter and Michael Castagna (Eds.)
The difficult clam, Mercenaria mercenaria, is a crucial advertisement, leisure and ecological inhabitant of coastal bays alongside the east and gulf coasts of the U.S.. This name represents the 1st cutting-edge precis of current wisdom of the challenging clam via specialists in quite a few disciplines. Containing a compendium of literature at the demanding clam, accomplished chapters on a variety of points of its biology in addition to summaries of data together with the grey literature in this economically very important species, this quantity represents a accomplished resource of organic info for managers and researchers attracted to shallow marine and estuarine ecosystems. examine scholars and executives charged with conserving coastal ecosystems also will discover a wealth of historical past fabric. the 1st synthesis of obtainable details at the mercenaria mercenaria, this name is a reaction to the desires of people keen on tough clam aquaculture and scientists attracted to molluscan biology, coastal ocean ecology and related fields. Over 2300 records were synthesized, and bankruptcy authors have additional unpublished info in addition to new fabric.
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Extra info for Biology of the Hard Clam
Aquaculturists (see Chapter 15) have taken advantage recently of this form, selectively breeding and reseeding their beds with the variant clams as a means of determining the rate of success of cultured juveniles in the wild (David Reylea, 1993, personal communication). It occurs throughout the natural range of the species, and is particularly obvious on younger, smaller specimens. Synonyms of this form include Venus obliqua Anton (1837), and Venus cyprinoides Anton (1839; Dall, 1902b). 14 Fig.
The migration hypothesis of Securella is only partly supported by the fossil record. The oldest fossils of Securella or Mercenaria reported from Japan date from the Miocene. The lack of Oligocene fossil data in Japan might be due to lack of preserving conditions, which includes relatively little land combined with the earthquakes and volcanism associated with the active plate tectonic movements occurring along the Asian rim of the North Pacific Ocean. The earliest record of Securella from the west coast of North America dates from the Upper Oligocene, where plate tectonic movements have also resulted in repeated inland flooding and uplift of marine fossil strata onto land.
Altilaminata (77 mm, adult length) is based on specimens labeled Miocene by Conrad but lacking locality data; these are in the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. Ward (1993, personal communication) has specimens from the Kirkwood Formation, New Jersey. The specimens most closely resemble ducateli but the shape is more quadrate and the umbos are larger. Despite the assertion of Palmer (1927) that the specimens have rugose nymphs, I found it difficult to ascertain whether or not they truly have rugose nymphs due to the condition of the specimens, thus complicating their proper classification.
Biology of the Hard Clam by John N. Kraeuter and Michael Castagna (Eds.)