By Ralph Pettman
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Human behavior is comprehensible only because of what it actually means to those who do the behaving and to those who do the analyzing. The context of shared symbols and assumptions that drapes any act that is not patently insane in a rich cloak of social significance is an essential part of every explanation of any human event. What does all this imply for a scientific understanding of human values? There is an important distinction here between an intuitive appreciation of values that locates them outside of nature, of the sort Plato had, for example, and one that grounds them in biosocial needs and the "fulfillment of natural tendencies," as Aristotle did.
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Biopolitics and International Values. Investigating Liberal Norms by Ralph Pettman