By M.P. Weinstein, Daniel A. Kreeger
Tidal salt marshes are considered as severe habitats for the construction of fish and shellfish. consequently, substantial laws has been promulgated to preserve and defend those habitats, and masses of it's in impression at the present time. The quite younger technology of ecological engineering has additionally emerged, and there at the moment are makes an attempt to opposite centuries-old losses through encouraging sound wetland recovery practices. at the present time, tens of millions of hectares of degraded or remoted coastal wetlands are being restored around the globe. no matter if restored wetlands achieve sensible equivalency to `natural' structures is a topic of heated debate. both controversial is the paradigm that depicts tidal salt marshes as the `great engine' that drives a lot of the secondary construction in coastal waters. This view used to be puzzled within the early Eighties through investigators who famous that overall carbon export, at the order of a hundred to two hundred g m-2 y-1 was once of a lot reduce importance than initially idea. those authors additionally well-known that a few marshes have been both web importers of carbon, or confirmed no internet trade. hence, the inspiration of `outwelling' has turn into yet a unmarried aspect in an evolving view of marsh functionality and the hyperlink among basic and secondary creation. The `revisionist' move was once introduced in 1979 whilst sturdy isotopic ratios of macrophytes and animal tissues have been discovered to be `mismatched'. a few eighteen years later, the view of marsh functionality remains to be present process extra amendment, and we're slowly unraveling the complexities of biogeochemical cycles, nutrient alternate, and the hyperlinks among fundamental manufacturers and the marsh/estuary fauna. but, when you consider that Teal's seminal paper approximately 40 years in the past, we aren't a lot towards knowing how marshes paintings. If whatever, we have now realized that the tale is way extra advanced than initially inspiration. regardless of greater than 4 many years of severe study, we don't but understand how salt marshes functionality as crucial habitat, nor can we recognize the relative contributions to secondary construction, either in situ or within the open waters of the estuary. The subject matter of this Symposium used to be to check the prestige of salt marsh examine and revisit the present paradigm(s) for salt marsh functionality. problem questions have been designed to fulfill the talk head on: Do marshes help the construction of marine temporary species? if this is the case, how? Are any of those species marsh obligates? How a lot of the creation occurs in situ as opposed to in open waters of the estuary/coastal quarter? classes have been dedicated to reports of landmark reports, or present findings that boost our wisdom of salt marsh functionality. an afternoon was once additionally dedicated to ecological engineering and wetland recovery papers addressing cutting-edge method and particular case histories. numerous problem papers arguing for and opposed to our skill to revive useful salt marshes led off each one consultation. This quantity is meant to function a synthesis of our present figuring out of the ecological function of salt marshes, and will, it's was hoping, pave the way in which for a brand new iteration of analysis.
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Additional info for Concepts and Controversies in Tidal Marsh Ecology
Global Biogeochemical Cycles 14: 167-176. Lapointe, B. , D. A. Tomasko and W. R. Matzie. 1994. Eutrophication and trophic state classification of seagrass communities in the Florida Keys. Bulletin of Marine Science 54:696-717. Law, C. , A. P. Rees and N. J. P. Owens. 1991. Temporal variability of denitrification in estuarine sediments. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 33:37-56. Lee, R. , S. B. Joye, B. J. Roberts and I. Valiela. 1997. Release of and from salt-marsh sediments subject to different land-derived nitrogen loads.
1997a). We developed the Waquoit Bay Nitrogen Loading Model (Valiela et al. 1997a) to estimate nitrogen loads provided by wastewater disposal, fertilizer use, and atmospheric deposition. We then verified predictions of the model in two different ways. First, we compared model estimates to empirically measured nitrogen loads (Valiela et al. 2000) obtained by multiplication of annual groundwater recharge rates times basin-weighted concentrations of nitrogen within groundwater at the seepage face to the estuaries.
1990, Valiela et al. 1992, Thybo-Christesen et al. 1993, Short et al. 1993, Lyons et al. 1995, Short and Burdick 1996). 30 Two types of mechanisms, one indirect (shading) and one direct (nitrate toxicity), might be responsible for the decline of eelgrass under increased nitrogen loads. The indirect mechanism might be that nitrate loads increase micro- and macroalgae, which in turn shade eelgrass. Growth of eelgrass is largely light-limited (Dennison and Alberte 1982, Zimmerman et al. 1987). Shading by increased biomass of other nitrogen-limited producers that result from increased nitrogen availability (Twilley et al.
Concepts and Controversies in Tidal Marsh Ecology by M.P. Weinstein, Daniel A. Kreeger