By Susan V. Monjan
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They must always be inferred from observable behaviors such as test performance. The process of establishing evidence for construct validity is the same as that of establishing evidence for any hypothesis. You must look to the real world for evidence which supports or refutes your hypothesis. Let us take the example of a teacher training program which wants to develop measurement techniques for evaluating potential teachers. They must first examine their assumptions about what skills "good" teachers have; then develop a test which covers the skills; administer the test to a number of experienced teachers; and finally assess the ability of the test to differentiate between effective and ineffective teachers by comparing its results against other methods of evaluating teachers.
You must start out by examining your theories about the characteristics of the ability that you are trying to measure. In this way, you will develop your "constructs" about that ability and will, therefore, be in a better position to develop tests to measure it that have high construct validity. ) Performance Objectives, Appraisal Objectives, and Learning Objec- EVALUATION OF COMPETENCIES 31 tives state 1) what observable behaviors will demonstrate (signify) to someone else to indicate the learning activity has been mastered, and 2) the standards of performance necessary if the demonstration is to be judged as indicating mastery of the learning activity.
They may find that the level of performance on the test does not differentiate between teachers who are considered by all other criteria to be good or bad. The conclusions they can reach from these findings are 1) they were incorrect in their view that good teaching is based on a general fund of knowledge, or 2) the test did not successfully sample the teachers' general fund of knowledge and, therefore, they are unable to determine if good teaching is related to a general fund of knowledge. In the above example, the evaluators had to start with beliefs or assumptions about skills good teachers have before they could develop their test.
Critical Issues in Competency Based Education by Susan V. Monjan