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Additional info for Decoupling the Environmental Impacts of Transport from Economic Growth
TRANSPORT AND THE ENVIRONMENT Life-cycle issues Transport externalities also include both “upstream” and “downstream” processes. g. externalities associated with the mining of fossil fuels used in the transport sector). An example of the latter would be the externalities associated with disposing of used motor vehicles. 2. 1 illustrates estimated total and average external costs of road for the year 2000 in EU17 (Switzerland and Norway included). The data are expressed in million euros per year for total passenger and freight, and in euro per 1 000 pkm or tkm for the average cost of passenger and freight.
It accounts for over 80% of all transport-related energy consumption, for most of the accidents and the majority of air pollutant emissions, noise and habitat degradation (OECD, 2001). Maritime transport, although generally associated with lower environmental impacts, continuously raises concern due to oil pollution from major accidents. More recently, there has been a growing concern over global environmental impacts from air traffic, which has been increasing particularly rapidly for tourism and leisure trips.
Investments in transportation systems (roads, railways, and canals) have a long history of contributing to economic development. They reduce the cost of transport between regions; they also play an important role in reducing regional disparities and in improving the competitiveness of regions, by facilitating trade, the movement of labour, and economies of scale. 10 illustrates these relationships. g. economies of scale, size, scope, agglomeration, density and network). The combined effect of these impacts will result in additional economic growth, usually measured as changes in employment, output, and productivity (Berechman, 2001).
Decoupling the Environmental Impacts of Transport from Economic Growth by OECD