Read e-book online Decoupling the Environmental Impacts of Transport from PDF


ISBN-10: 9264027122

ISBN-13: 9789264027121

The OECD is a special foium the place the governments of 30 democracies interact to deal with the commercial, social and environmental demanding situations of globalisation. The OECD can also be on the leading edge of efforts to appreciate and to assist governments reply to new advancements and matters, akin to company governance, the data financial system and the demanding situations of an aging inhabitants. The supplier presents a environment the place governments can evaluate coverage reviews, search solutions to universal difficulties, establish reliable perform and paintings to co-ordinate household and foreign guidelines.

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Sample text

TRANSPORT AND THE ENVIRONMENT Life-cycle issues Transport externalities also include both “upstream” and “downstream” processes. g. externalities associated with the mining of fossil fuels used in the transport sector). An example of the latter would be the externalities associated with disposing of used motor vehicles. 2. 1 illustrates estimated total and average external costs of road for the year 2000 in EU17 (Switzerland and Norway included). The data are expressed in million euros per year for total passenger and freight, and in euro per 1 000 pkm or tkm for the average cost of passenger and freight.

It accounts for over 80% of all transport-related energy consumption, for most of the accidents and the majority of air pollutant emissions, noise and habitat degradation (OECD, 2001). Maritime transport, although generally associated with lower environmental impacts, continuously raises concern due to oil pollution from major accidents. More recently, there has been a growing concern over global environmental impacts from air traffic, which has been increasing particularly rapidly for tourism and leisure trips.

Investments in transportation systems (roads, railways, and canals) have a long history of contributing to economic development. They reduce the cost of transport between regions; they also play an important role in reducing regional disparities and in improving the competitiveness of regions, by facilitating trade, the movement of labour, and economies of scale. 10 illustrates these relationships. g. economies of scale, size, scope, agglomeration, density and network). The combined effect of these impacts will result in additional economic growth, usually measured as changes in employment, output, and productivity (Berechman, 2001).

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Decoupling the Environmental Impacts of Transport from Economic Growth by OECD

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