By John D. Beadle (eds.)
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Extra info for Metal Forming
13 illustrates the categories of parting line which are considered; these are (I) flat or symmetrically cranked; and (2) asymFig. 18. Enveloping shapes for forgings. metrically cranked. Tolerances for the second category are larger than for the first because of the effects of side thrust previously mentioned. 65% or Mn+Ni+Cr+Mo+V+W> 5% The complexity of a forging is represented by a factor S, defined as follows: S= weight of forging weight of enveloping shape Fig. 18 shows how the enveloping shape is determined.
By the early 1900s, lead, copper, and brass were being extruded on a commercial scale. In 1928, steel tubes were being extruded and regular commercial production was achieved by 1937. In simple terms, the extrusion process can be described as follows. The metal slug or billet is placed in an enclosed chamber. The metal is then caused to move through a die opening at one end of the chamber, by applying pressure with a mechanically or hydraulically operated ram. The metal passing through the die assumes, and retains, the cross sectional shape of the die aperture.
Hammers provide the most versatile forging facilities and although there is a slow drift towards forging presses there are still ten times as many hammers as presses in use in the United Kingdom. Mechanical (crank) presses The principle of the mechanical forging press is shown in Fig. 27. A motor driven flywheel drives an eccentric mechanism which is attached to a ram by a connecting rod. Since the ram is fitted with substantial guides and because the press is a constant stroke machine, a higher precision can be achieved with press forging than with hammer forging.
Metal Forming by John D. Beadle (eds.)